Unlike analog, digital systems are integrated into networks, which opens up the target surface of systems and introduces the risk of cyber threats. In particular, this is true for industrial control systems (ICS), which are being converted to digital platforms without a layered-security approach to safeguard the systems. Hardware-based: The proprietary nature and lack of upgrade support of the hardware exposes systems to increased security risks. Weak authentication/encryption: Hardware-based systems were not designed to support advanced encryption standards or complex authentication. Encryption in hardware systems is rarely strong due to the processing power that is required to support encryption. This requirement does not allow for traditional antiviruses or malware protection commonly seen in standard IT systems.