Vietnam has the potential to become a mid-level cybercrime hub, according to sociologist Dr Jonathan Lusthaus, who's been studying cybercrime globally for more than seven years. Cybercrime hub, cybercrime haven, or neither? When a new centre of cybercrime emerges, it can be hard to tell whether it'll be a hub, or what Lufthaus calls a haven. Some traditional core hubs of cybercrime, such as Russia and Ukraine, have an "over-supply of technical talent" that can't be absorbed by the legitimate local industries, or can't necessarily get jobs internationally, he said. Lufthaus visited Vietnam personally in 2017 as part of his seven-year research program for his book Industry of Anonymity: Inside the Business of Cybercrime. Vietnam has a community of interest in hacking, and the nation's technical education is good enough regionally to produce a suitable talent pool, but Lufthaus says this won't necessarily result in a cybercrime hub.