The technological choices that nations make will be a key factor in shaping international conflict, particularly between the authoritarian regimes and the developed democracies, he said. "I think it's very much going to be driven by individual choices that democracies make about 5G, and the kind of technological bets that they're making about the future of technology both to their economies and their military systems." Another key factor, however, is that the development and control of digital technologies is still dominated by private-sector players rather than governments. Buchanan says we don't talk about this technological competition in Australia because we are not home to those key technology players. Buchanan said that with accelerating technology, what she referred to as "the global digital commons" is now an area for accelerated competition -- because control is everything there. There are no global negotiations going on about how we regulate the digital commons," nor standards for such things as data sovereignty, digital privacy, or the trade in digital assets.